The Rise of Coworking Spaces: A Critical Review


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Over the last decade, coworking spaces have taken the world by storm, flipping our perceptions of work and office life on their heads. The work landscape has morphed dramatically in the aftermath of the global economic crisis. Gone are the days of traditional 9-to-5 jobs; now, urban professionals juggle a precarious and nomadic existence, hopping from gig to gig. 

Enter coworking spaces, the latest craze promising to revolutionize the socio-economic conditions of knowledge workers. But let’s be real: are these trendy shared workspaces truly the magical solution they claim to be, or are we just riding the wave of a “coworking bubble”? Only time—and a lot of coffee—will tell!

The Buzz Around Coworking

Coworking has become a buzzword, much like Richard Florida’s “rise of the creative class” in the early 2000s. The expectations surrounding coworking are sky-high, promising skill enhancement and empowerment for urban professionals. However, we must tread carefully. Just as Florida’s creative class faces its share of challenges, coworking spaces may not be the silver bullet we hope for.

The concept of coworking, as we know it today, was first introduced in 2005 by Brad Neuberg, a software engineer based in San Francisco. Neuberg’s idea was to create a space that combined the freedom of working independently with the community with the structure of working in a traditional office. In essence, San Francisco can be considered the birthplace of the coworking movement!

The Concept of Coworking Spaces

So, what exactly are coworking spaces? Simply put, they are shared work environments where individuals from different companies and professions work side by side. Unlike traditional offices, coworking spaces prioritize flexibility, collaboration, and community. They offer a variety of workstations, meeting rooms, and social areas designed to foster interaction and productivity.

Coworking spaces are characterized by their open layouts, flexible membership plans, and a strong sense of community. Members can choose from various workstations, including hot desks, dedicated desks, and private offices. Additionally, coworking spaces often host networking events, workshops, and social activities to encourage collaboration and knowledge sharing.

The Data suggests

coworking spaces

Global Distribution: Deskmag’s data reveals that coworking spaces predominantly thrive in “creative cities” within advanced economies. These urban hubs attract knowledge workers who seek collaborative and dynamic environments to foster creativity and productivity.

Around the Globe: Japan, Brazil, Australia, and Russia are notable for their numerous coworking spaces, providing diverse options for professionals. China, too, is rapidly catching up in the coworking trend. However, the question remains: are these spaces truly fostering innovation and meeting the high expectations set for them?

Regional Case Studies

Japan: Japan boasts 129 coworking spaces, with a significant concentration in major cities like Tokyo and Osaka. These spaces cater to a diverse clientele, including tech startups, freelancers, and remote workers. The Japanese coworking scene emphasizes efficiency and innovation, reflecting the country’s tech-savvy culture.

Brazil: Brazil’s coworking industry is thriving, with 95 coworking spaces nationwide. Cities like São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are hotspots for coworking, attracting a mix of creative professionals and entrepreneurs. The vibrant coworking community in Brazil is known for its collaborative spirit and focus on social impact.

Australia: Australia is home to 60 coworking spaces, with a growing presence in cities like Sydney and Melbourne. Australian coworking spaces are renowned for their laid-back and inclusive atmosphere, catering to a diverse range of professionals. These spaces often emphasize sustainability and community engagement.

Russia: Russia’s coworking industry is expanding, with 39 coworking spaces across the country. Moscow and St. Petersburg are the primary hubs for coworking, attracting a mix of tech startups and freelancers. Russian coworking spaces are known for their modern amenities and focus on fostering innovation.

China: China is witnessing rapid growth in coworking spaces, with an increasing number of spaces in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai. Chinese coworking spaces cater to a diverse clientele, including tech startups, entrepreneurs, and remote workers. The emphasis is on creating collaborative and innovative environments.

Coworking as Distributed Work

Spinuzzi’s Perspective

Spinuzzi’s study in Austin highlights coworking as a new model of “distributed work.” It’s not just about sharing desks; it’s about sharing ideas, networks, and inspiration. The study reveals how coworking spaces enable professionals to work independently while still being part of a community. This model of work promotes flexibility, collaboration, and a sense of belonging.

Capdevila’s Microclusters

Capdevila’s study proposes coworking spaces as ‘microclusters’ that facilitate knowledge transfer among members. These microclusters act as hubs of innovation and creativity, enabling professionals to share ideas, collaborate on projects, and learn from one another. The study emphasizes the importance of community and collaboration in coworking spaces.  Imagine a mini-ecosystem where ideas collide and flourish.

Nomads Find a Home

Coworking practices provide a physical anchor for the “nomad” workforce. These spaces offer stability amidst the chaos of freelancing and project-based work.

Intermediaries for Value Production

Coworking spaces act as new intermediaries for value production, potentially igniting a ‘coworking class’ that remains unaware of collective subjectivity or consciousness. These spaces connect people, projects, and possibilities, fostering collaboration and innovation. However, the emergence of this “coworking class” raises concerns about their lack of awareness regarding collective consciousness. This phenomenon prompts questions about the role of coworking spaces in shaping professional identities and the potential for exploitation within these environments.

Sharing Economy Dilemmas

The broader debates regarding the ‘sharing economy’ need to consider the contradictory nature of coworking spaces. On one hand, coworking spaces promote collaboration, community, and innovation. On the other hand, they can reinforce existing social and economic inequalities, creating new forms of precarity and dependency. Is it truly collaborative, or are we just renting desks?


Here are some notable coworking spaces from around the world:

  1. Alkaloid Networks (Atlanta, Georgia): A 14,000-square-foot building with amenities like unlimited conference room use, printing, free parking, electric vehicle charging, and a rooftop deck overlooking the Eastside Beltline.
  1. COhatch: This dynamic coworking space offers more than just desks. Imagine zombie dodgeball, podcast rooms, game rooms, a movie theater, and even a rock-climbing wall! They also provide concierge services for event planning and business listings.
  1. WeWork: A global giant in coworking, WeWork provides flexible spaces, community events, and a vibrant atmosphere. From hot desks to private offices, they’ve got it all.
  1. NeueHouse: Known for its creative vibe, NeueHouse caters to artists, entrepreneurs, and professionals. Their spaces blend work and culture seamlessly.
  1. Serendipity Labs: With locations across the U.S., Serendipity Labs offers upscale coworking environments, complete with meeting rooms and concierge services.

Final Thoughts

Coworking spaces hold immense promise, but they’re not immune to pitfalls. Let’s celebrate their potential while keeping our critical lenses intact. After all, in the colorful world of coworking, even the coffee machine has a story to tell! 


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